## Boston Housing Data

The *Housing* data set is a popular regression benchmarking data set hosted on the UCI Machine Learning Repository. It contains 506 records consisting of multivariate data attributes for various real estate zones and their housing price indices. The task is then to learn a regression model that can predict the price index or range. In this blog post, I use the DynaML machine learning library to train the *GP* models.

The following meta-data is taken directly from the UCI repository, the final column indicating the property value.

### Attribute Information:

**CRIM**: per capita crime rate by town**ZN**: proportion of residential land zoned for lots over 25,000 sq.ft.**INDUS**: proportion of non-retail business acres per town**CHAS**: Charles River dummy variable (= 1 if tract bounds river; 0 otherwise)**NOX**: nitric oxides concentration (parts per 10 million)**RM**: average number of rooms per dwelling**AGE**: proportion of owner-occupied units built prior to 1940**DIS**: weighted distances to five Boston employment centres**RAD**: index of accessibility to radial highways**TAX**: full-value property-tax rate per $10,000**PTRATIO**: pupil-teacher ratio by town**B**: 1000(Bk - 0.63)^2 where Bk is the proportion of blacks by town**LSTAT**: % lower status of the population**MEDV**: Median value of owner-occupied homes in $1000’s

## Gaussian Process

Given the lack of data volume (~500 instances) with respect to the dimensionality of the data (13), it makes sense to try smoothing or non-parametric models to model the unknown price function. For a detailed introduction to *Gaussian Processes*, refer to the famous book by Ramussen and Williams. For a succint introduction, you can also refer to the DynaML wiki pages.

## Modelling Experiments

In the `examples`

folder of the DynaML repository, a program called `TestGPHousing.scala`

can be used to test *GP* models with various kernels, a typical call to `TestGPHousing`

looks like.

```
TestGPHousing(kernel = new ..., noise = new ..., grid = 10,
step = 0.03, globalOpt = "GS", trainFraction = 0.45)
```

### Kernels

#### FBM kernel with Gaussian Covariate noise

```
DynaML>TestGPHousing(kernel = new FBMKernel(0.55),
noise = new SEKernel(1.5, 1.5), grid = 5,
step = 0.03, globalOpt = "GS", trainFraction = 0.45)
```

```
16/03/03 20:17:42 INFO GridSearch: Optimum value of energy is: 246.38482492249904
Configuration: Map(hurst -> 0.52, bandwidth -> 1.35, amplitude -> 1.35)
16/03/03 20:17:42 INFO SVMKernel$: Constructing kernel matrix.
16/03/03 20:17:42 INFO SVMKernel$: Dimension: 227 x 227
```

```
16/03/03 20:17:43 INFO GPRegression: Generating error bars
16/03/03 20:17:43 INFO RegressionMetrics: Regression Model Performance: MEDV
16/03/03 20:17:43 INFO RegressionMetrics: ============================
16/03/03 20:17:43 INFO RegressionMetrics: MAE: 5.804371810611489
16/03/03 20:17:43 INFO RegressionMetrics: RMSE: 7.676433880135313
16/03/03 20:17:43 INFO RegressionMetrics: RMSLE: 0.4108750385573816
16/03/03 20:17:43 INFO RegressionMetrics: R^2: 0.3713246243782846
16/03/03 20:17:43 INFO RegressionMetrics: Corr. Coefficient: 0.7700074003860581
16/03/03 20:17:43 INFO RegressionMetrics: Model Yield: 0.7243148481557278
16/03/03 20:17:43 INFO RegressionMetrics: Std Dev of Residuals: 6.289145946687416
```

#### Composite FBM + Laplacian Kernel with Uncorrelated Gaussian Noise

```
DynaML>TestGPHousing(kernel = new FBMKernel(0.55) +
new LaplacianKernel(2.5), noise = new RBFKernel(1.5),
grid = 5, step = 0.03, globalOpt = "GS", trainFraction = 0.45)
```

```
16/03/03 20:45:41 INFO GridSearch: Optimum value of energy is: 278.1603309851301
Configuration: Map(hurst -> 0.4, beta -> 2.35, bandwidth -> 1.35)
16/03/03 20:45:41 INFO SVMKernel$: Constructing kernel matrix.
```

```
16/03/03 20:45:42 INFO GPRegression: Generating error bars
16/03/03 20:45:42 INFO RegressionMetrics: Regression Model Performance: MEDV
16/03/03 20:45:42 INFO RegressionMetrics: ============================
16/03/03 20:45:42 INFO RegressionMetrics: MAE: 5.800070254265218
16/03/03 20:45:42 INFO RegressionMetrics: RMSE: 7.739266267762397
16/03/03 20:45:42 INFO RegressionMetrics: RMSLE: 0.4150438478412412
16/03/03 20:45:42 INFO RegressionMetrics: R^2: 0.3609909626630624
16/03/03 20:45:42 INFO RegressionMetrics: Corr. Coefficient: 0.7633838930006132
16/03/03 20:45:42 INFO RegressionMetrics: Model Yield: 0.7341944950376289
16/03/03 20:45:42 INFO RegressionMetrics: Std Dev of Residuals: 6.287519509352036
```

## Source Code

Below is the example program as a github gist, to view the original program in DynaML, click here.